United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (2012). Promoting synergies within the biodiversity cluster of biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC. DOI:

There are six main, global-scale biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and World Heritage Convention (WHC). There is a degree of overlap in terms of the objectives and activities undertaken by each one, with existing cooperative agreements providing the basis for the conventions to work together on joint issues. This report analyses the potential for much greater synergies between these conventions, developing recommendations in four key areas: i) the science-policy interface (including the role of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, IPBES), ii) National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) and the national implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, iii) national reporting and iv) capacity-building.